RISK MANAGEMENT


GENERAL RISK MANAGEMENT

GENERAL RISK MANAGEMENT

Risk Management Checklist (USDA): A checklist template where you answer yes or no to a set of questions, which may help to identify some risk exposure. 

Managing Your Risk (Connecticut Farm Risk Management and Crop Insurance Program): Farming is a high-risk venture that brings with it yearly uncertainties, which can include drought, flood, hail, pest infestation, fluctuating prices and yields, and many others. Farm profitability is directly related to how well your business can handle these risks. This is why having a solid risk management plan is so important.

Risk Management Systems in the Australian Dairy Industry (Dairy Australia): The Australian dairy industry has adopted a preventative approach to manage potential risks across the integrated supply chain, and has developed quality management systems that underpin the comprehensive regulatory requirements.

Growing Australian Grain (GrainTrade): Growers today are managing more complex farming systems to supply more sophisticated markets and consumers. This guide aims to help growers understand the legal obligations, responsibilities and risks in their farming business.

Risk management strategies by Australian farmers: two case studies (Charles Sturt University): This paper reports results from two case studies undertaken to examine the issues of farming risks and risk management strategies in Australia. The paper compares the results from these two case studies with results from other studies in the United States of America, Canada, Netherlands, and New Zealand.

Better risk management is the key to lifting farm-gate returns (Strategis Partners): Farmers operating without risk solutions do not make the best farm business decisions. New research from CSIRO highlights how farmers’ risk aversion is holding grain productivity back.

Risk and Resilience in Agriculture (Colorado State University/Montana State University/University of Wyoming): Survival in today’s agricultural risk environment involves managing all resources together and giving attention to the interactions between these resources.  The Risk and Resilience in Agriculture materials are designed with the purpose of helping agricultural producers develop individual and family strategies to best deal with today’s agricultural business environment. 

The Big Five Risks Faced by Farmers (New England Vegetable Management Guide): As you think about managing risk to stabilize farm income, there are five basic sources of agricultural risk that you should address: Production, marketing, financial, legal, and human resource risks. Various tools and strategies can be used to manage each of these risks.


PRODUCTION RISK

PRODUCTION RISK

Agricultural Risks and Risk Management (Ag Risk Management Forum): Agricultural risks can range from independent (for example, localized hail losses or an individual farmer’s illness) to highly correlated (for example, market price risk or widespread drought). Managing risks in agriculture is particularly challenging, as many risks are highly correlated, resulting in whole communities being affected at the same time.

Managing Production Risk in Agriculture (Utah State University): Among the major risks farmers face is production risk. Agricultural producers are in the business of production-taking certain inputs and transforming them into outputs (which outputs are hopefully worth more than the sum value of the inputs).

Diversification of your operation, Why? (PennState University): If you are only engaged in one enterprise (growing corn for example) and have a crop failure, it will be more devastating than if you grew more crops. By diversifying, you are spreading the downside risk over more than one enterprise.

Managing Farm Risk Programme (Australian Government): The Managing Farm Risk Programme provides rebates for advice and assessments to help farmers prepare and apply for a new insurance policy that assists with the management of drought and other production and market risks. These one-off rebates will be for half of the costs incurred by eligible farm businesses, up to a maximum of $2,500 (GST exclusive). The rebates are not for insurance policy premiums.

Managing Production Risk (Connecticut Farm Risk Management and Crop Insurance Program): Production risk includes anything that directly affects the quantity and quality of your production. According to the USDA, the major sources of production risks are crop yield variability, weather, pests, diseases, technological developments, genetics, machinery efficiency, and the quality and price of inputs.

What does the Managing Farm Risk Program mean for you (PUM): Now, farmers will be supported to take-up natural disaster insurance with the $20.2 million Managing Farm Risk Program, unveiled last week by Deputy Prime Minister and Agriculture Minister Barnaby Joyce. Eligible farm businesses can access a 50 per cent rebate, up to $2,500, on costs incurred in securing, or attempting to secure, agricultural insurance. This includes retaining the services of a licensed insurance broker to provide independent, professional advice. 

Managing Farm Risk with Agricultural Insurance (Darren Chester - Member for Gippsland): Farm businesses can better prepare for the perils of drought, frost, hail and fire, with the Coalition Government announcing the introduction of the Managing Farm Risk Program. Federal Member for Gippsland Darren Chester said the program would provide one-off rebates up to $2500 in dollar-for-dollar funding to cover the costs incurred by an eligible farm business securing, or attempting to secure, agricultural insurance.

Deciding if MCPI will help manage risk in your farm business (ORM): MPCI is one of the many tools available along with good management practices and should not be seen as the only way to manage risk. While it has benefit in some situations it will not suit all businesses and a thorough assessment of the merits needs to be conducted before purchasing policies.

Value, not cost, is the key to selecting the right crop insurance (Strategis Partners): Examines how farmers can respond to risk through taking out crop insurance: Why might you need it? What insurances are on offer? And what has been the experience of growers?

Risk Protection for Farmers and Agriculture (Canstar): For protecting against loss and damage to crops, livestock, equipment and any other business assets, there are a myriad of agribusiness insurance options available. Farmers should protect anything that they cannot realistically afford to replace, and should seek professional advice to decide just what type and level of insurance is required for their specific needs.


MARKETING RISK

MARKETING RISK

Managing Marketing Risk in Agriculture (Utah State University): Marketing risk, which could also be referred to as price risk, deals with uncertainty about commodity prices and the possibility of a change in prices that would adversely affect the farmer.

Grain Market Lingo: What does it all mean? (GRDC): GRDC has prepared this booklet which describes the key elements of price risk management available to growers. It is hoped that growers will have a better understanding of price risk management after reading this booklet.

Writing a Commodity Marketing Plan (AgRisk): A marketing plan is ... A document listing your intentions for managing risk and capturing the price levels you want in the commodity markets.

Hedging strategies aim to reduce price risk (AgriBank): Such market volatility underscores the need for crop producers to minimize price risk— with hedging strategies offering an effective solution.

Self-Study Guide to Hedging with Livestock Futures and Options (CME Group): CME Group livestock futures and options provide livestock buyers and sellers with valuable tools to manage price risk and have more control over their bottom line. This guide is designed to provide a detailed overview of using futures and options for risk management in the livestock markets.

Managing Price Risk with Grain and Oilseed Futures and Options (CME Group): Like most farmers, grain and oilseed producers tend to focus on production risk rather than market risk. Market risk includes two components: price and basis.

Developing a Marketing Plan (AgriLife Extension): It is essential for an agricultural producer to have a written marketing plan. Developing a good marketing plan will help you identify and quantify costs, set price goals, determine potential price outlook, examine production and price risk, and develop a strategy for marketing your crop.

Grain Price Hedging Basics (Ag Decision Maker): Futures hedging can help establish price either before or after harvest. By establishing a price, the producer protects against price declines, but also generally eliminates any potential gain if prices rise.

Grain Price Options Basics (Ag Decision Maker): An option is the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a futures contract. The buyer of an option acquires this right. The option seller (writer) must take the opposite side of the option buyer’s futures position.

Managing Marketing Risk (Connecticut Farm Risk Management and Crop Insurance Program): Marketing practices allow you to derive financial gains from your production activities. Marketing risk stems from uncertainty in the market for your product. For example, the price you will receive for your product is not usually guaranteed as it is sensitive to the ever fluctuating market.

Guide to Managing Commodity Risk (CPA Australia): Commodity risk is the risk that a business’s financial performance or position will be adversely affected by fluctuations in the prices of commodities. Producers of commodities, for example in the minerals (gold, coal etc.), agricultural (wheat, cotton, sugar etc.) and energy sectors (oil, gas and electricity), are primarily exposed to price fie falls, which mean they will receive less revenue for the commodities they produce.

Price Risk Management for Australian Broadacre Farmers; some observations (Ross Kingwell): This article briefly explores the nature of price risk faced by Australian broad acre farmers and outlines some farm management ramifications of price risk. The article describes the variation in price risk across time and across commodities. The underlying distributional form of prices faced by farmers is shown to have important ramifications for farm management.

Information sources preferred by farmers in using price risk tools (Storer, Thunder and Murray-Prior): Despite increased concerns about the risk of price fluctuations and interest in using price risk management tools (PRMT) to reduce this risk, many Australian farmers lack the knowledge and access to information to adopt them. This study looked at the sources of information available to learn to use price risk management tools as well as experienced tool users’ assessments of different types of information sources.

Analysis of Price Risk Management Strategies in Dairy Farming Using Whole-Farm Simulations (Neyhard, Tauer and Gloy)Combinations of futures and options contracts on milk and feed were simulated to determine their influence on a representative dairy farm’s ability to meet cash flow requirements and reduce the variance of net income.

Managing Price Risk (UDel): All businesses face risk.  Fortunately there are various mechanisms by which businesses can "hedge" or manage these risks.

Managing fuel and fertilizer price risk for the next five years (Farm Futures): Farmers have various input prices that greatly fluctuate on their farming operation. Most of them can be hedged using risk management strategies and programs. You may not realize it, but fuel and fertilizers are part of that group: they can be hedged to minimize the risk of higher prices.

Decision-making in Australian wheat marketing and price risk management (John Williams): Different management approaches by Australian wheat growers were found to affect marketing decision-making more than hedging decision-making which was more influenced by risk perception. Cash flow might be a greater contributing factor leading to emotional anxiety than either the marketing method or hedging strategy. 

Case Study 4: Grower Price Risk Management (Australian Wool Education Trust): This case study is about the marketing environment facing specialist woolgrowers and approaches available to the growers in dealing with volatile prices.

Hedging Cattle Prices with a US Contract (Mecardo)Since the demise of the MLA/SFE Cattle Futures contract in 2009 there has been no local way of hedging cattle prices, so we’ll take a look at the potential to manage price using US cattle futures. 

Managing wool price risk with minimum price contracts (Andrew Woods): As sellers of wool, price risk to a farmer is the probability of a lower price received. There are a number of ways to address this risk. This article looks at how minimum price contracts might help to minimise price risk.

Do Australian Woolgrowers Manage Price Risk Rationally? (Deane and Malcolm): Australian woolgrowers have not adopted price risk management in the last decade. This is despite a concerted effort at various times by participants in the wool industry to encourage growers to use hedging/forward selling. The explanation for the reluctance of woolgrowers to use futures market and forward pricing instruments lies not in market failure but in characteristics of wool producing farm businesses.

Taking control of grain price risk (Dairy Farm Business Management): If the market signals were showing that grain or milk prices were changing, a dairyfarmer might choose to enter the market (for example, by buying a forward contract for some of their grain) to reduce the risk of a future price change on their business.

Using futures contracts and other derivatives (Dairy Australia): Derivatives allow you to manage price risk when you are unable to fix a price for supply in the cash market with a forward contract. They allow you to substitute a future physical purchase with a current paper transaction, which will be offset (cash settled) when the physical purchase takes place

 


FINANCIAL & LEGAL RISK

FINANCIAL & LEGAL RISK

Managing Financial Risk (Connecticut Farm Risk Management and Crop Insurance Program): Financial risk is associated with your ability to both safeguard and expand your farm’s equity while at the same time promptly fulfilling all cash flow requirements and ensuring liquidity. Furthermore, it is important to recognize the risk of inflation and fluctuations in interest rates. The key to managing this form of risk is to keep updated records and closely monitor all financial transactions.

Farm Asset Protection - Are you at risk? (Mulcahy & Co): The aim is to separate the farm business from the valuable farm assets. Separation means owning and controlling the assets in a different entity or name than where the farm business operates from. If something goes wrong in the farm business the assets have a different owner than where the business is carried out, providing a degree of seperation and protection.

Managing your farm's financial risk (Gayle Willett): The objective of this chapter, Managing Your Farm’s Financial Risk, is to provide specific strategies for managing financial risk faced by the farm business. The chapter focuses primarily on credit, investment and cash reserve/liquidity issues.

Risk Protection for Farmers and Agriculture (Canstar): For protecting against loss and damage to crops, livestock, equipment and any other business assets, there are a myriad of agribusiness insurance options available. Farmers should protect anything that they cannot realistically afford to replace, and should seek professional advice to decide just what type and level of insurance is required for their specific needs.

Managing Financial Risk Agriculture (Utah State University): Among the risks farmers face is financial risk. Financial risk exists because of the need to finance business operations and maintain cash flow levels adequate to repay debts and meet other financial obligations.

Expanding a dairy business affects business risk and .... financial risk (Dairy Australia): The aim of this research was to consider three different expansion paths and compare the wealth, efficiency of capital use and riskiness of each option with the current situation. In particular, this research set out to understand the sources of risk for each of the different options.

Farm Finances: Leverage and Financial Risk (Agfax): This article described financial risk and illustrated the impact of leverage on financial performance. Leverage was found to increase the variability of the rate of return on farm equity. 

Business Risk and Finance Risk (MLA): Successful rural enterprise require property owners and managers to have a sound understanding of the enterprise's financial position as well as an appreciation of what constitutes acceptable risk.

Managing Legal Risk (Connecticut Farm Risk Management and Crop Insurance Program): The legal risk associated with farm ownership is extensive and includes the possibility of being sued, fined or penalized for violating laws or regulatory standards. According to the USDA, the legal issues linked with agriculture fall into four categories: appropriate legal business structure and tax and estate planning, contractual agreements, tort liability, and statutory compliance, including environmental issues.


HUMAN RESOURCES RISK

HUMAN RESOURCES RISK

Managing Human Resources Risk (Connecticut Farm Risk Management and Crop Insurance Program): People are a significant source of risk to the stability and success of any business, especially your farm. Human resources risk includes the four D’s, which are divorce, disability, death and disagreement. Small farms are especially sensitive to these factors because they rely heavily upon the family as the workforce.

Farm Safety Starter Guide (NSW Government/WorkCover): The Farm Safety Starter Kit is a recommendation of the NSW Workplace Safety Summit, which brought together over 200 representatives of business, unions, and the community to focus on making safer workplaces. The Farm Safety Starter Kit can assist to make your farm a safer place to work and live, and help you meet your legal obligations.

Health and Safety Risk Management (The People in Dairy)The challenge with dairy farms is that they are workplaces and also places where families live. For the people working on the farm, there are some very busy periods, long days, a wide range of weather conditions and the requirement to handle large animals and work with potentially hazardous equipment, environments and substances. Where do you start? First – know your legal obligations. Then develop an approach to health and safety that is part of your overall farm management.

Farm Worker Safety Induction (Ag Health)This document provides guidance to persons working in the agricultural and farming sectors on the types of safety induction training that may be needed to provide farm workers and contractors with an awareness and understanding of common farm hazards and how they should be managed.

Serious About Farm Safety (Queensland Government/WorkSafe): Serious about farm safety will assist small to medium sized agricultural businesses to develop a system to manage health and safety risks around the farm and other agricultural workplaces. A simple health and safety system will reduce the risk of workplace injuries and can help to reduce your workers’ compensation premium.

Risk Management and Farming Families (RIRDC): Farmers have traditionally assessed and managed risk with an informal or ‘gut-feel’ approach. The corporate sector is embracing formal risk appraisal and risk management processes, including integrated risk management. This publication presents the results and insights from surveys collected from 220 farmers about attitudes to risk, comfort with risks, risk behaviour, decision making processes and farming styles.

Top Tips to manage on-farm safety (RIRDC): Managing health and safety in farm work is not only a good way to avoid incidents - it's also a way to contribute to higher income and profit. And there are some simple steps primary producers can take to ensure a safe workplace for themselves and their employees.

Managing Farm Machinery Safer (RIRDC): The work reported here identifies individual and machine characteristics that are associated with an increased risk of a serious farm work related injury. A comprehensive analysis of a series of farm machinery events is reported.

Farm safety and your legal requirements - addressing risk to help the bottom line (GRDC): Penny Brooke, from Piper Alderman, outlines rights, obligations and duties of OHS.


BIOSECURITY RISK

BIOSECURITY RISK

FarmBiosecurity (Animal Health Australia/Plant Health Australia): This site provides information about on-farm biosecurity measures, which help preventemergency animal disease outbreaks and exotic plant pest incursions. It encourages producers to identify risks to their livestock, crops and plant products, and to minimise those risks through good practices.

On-farm biosecurity planning tools (Livestock Biosecurity Network): The guideline sets out a broad range of general guidelines to help producers develop a practical biosecurity plan for addressing disease, pest and weed prevention and control on their farms.

Protecting your farm (Queensland Government): On-farm biosecurity involves protecting your animals against pests, diseases and chemical residues, and caring for animals and the environment. Assessing the risks and planning to control them can improve your business's profitability and contribute to your local community's economic health.

Farm Biosecurity gate sign (Animal Health Australia): Animal Health Australia (AHA) distributes Farm Biosecurity signs for farm gates as part of its Biosecurity Program. Warn your visitors about farm biosecurity.

Farm biosecurity checklist for sheep producers (WA Department of Agriculture & Food): Following the sheep biosecurity checklist greatly reduces the risk of an emergency disease such as foot-and-mouth disease or scrapie being able to enter your flock, as well as diseases which do occur in Western Australia such as ovine Johne's disease and footrot.

National Grains Farm Biosecurity Program (IPM Guidelines): Farm Biosecurity and integrated pest management (IPM) are consistent in their goals of protecting crop health, often using a whole farm approach to good crop management. Many biosecurity risk mitigation strategies are synonymous with IPM preventative strategies and both rely on planning.

National Farm Biosecurity Manual Poultry Production (DAFF): The purpose of the manual is to establish a minimum set of biosecurity standards, applicable to all poultry producers (including ratites). While the manual was produced with commercial producers in mind, the principles of good biosecurity apply to any poultry or bird-raising operation.

Citrus Farm Biosecurity Manual (Farm Biosecurity): Simple everyday practices protect your property from biosecurity risks. The Farm Biosecurity website brings together tools, tips, manuals and resources for all Australian producers.

Dairy Biosecurity: Healthy Farms (Australian Dairy Farmers/Dairy Australia): The aim of this brochure is to provide farmers with a check list of farm practices that contribute to managing the risks associated with biosecurity.

Farm Biosecurity Manual for the Cotton Industry (Cotton info): The Farm Biosecurity Manual for the Cotton Industry outlines the recommended on farm biosecurity practices that aim to reduce the risk of pests.

Animal Biosecurity for Hobby Farmers (Biosecurity Tasmania): It is most important, not just for the smallholder or hobby farmers themselves but also for everyone else in the community, that all farmers - small, new and established commercial alike, take their biosecurity and animal welfare responsibilities seriously. The following documents provide some basic information to help you do just that.

Biosecurity (AUSVEG): Biosecurity planning provides a mechanism for the vegetable industry, government and other relevant stakeholders to actively determine pests of highest priority, analyse the risks they pose and put in place procedures to reduce the chance of pests becoming established - and to minimise the impact if a pest incursion occurs.

Biosecurity strategies and success stories (Farmers Connect) 


CLIMATE, WEATHER & DROUGHT RISK

CLIMATE, WEATHER & DROUGHT
RISK

Managing Risk in a Highly Variable Environment (PIRSA)This workshop series focuses on establishing an annual calendar for the critical decision making processes which are required to successfully manage a responsive farm program in a lower rainfall mixed cropping/ livestock environment. 

Weather and Climate Risk in Agriculture (BoM): This resource focuses on risks associated with climate and using climate information in agricultural risk management processes. This page introduces risk management concepts and climate risk factors. Linked sections (see tabs above) address risk management associated with El Niño and La Niña, Rainfall and Temperature risks while the Research section identifies climate and risk research areas, resources and links.

Farm Fire Safety (South Australian Country Fire Service): Bushfires and grass fires are a serious threat to a farmer's livelihood.  Years of hard work can be wiped out in a moment. While it is impossible to eliminate the risk of fire, farmers can introduce measures to reduce the threat.

Assessing climate risks to improve farm business management (Charles Sturt University): Variability in income is a fact of life for farm businesses, and much of it is directly associated with variability in climate. This paper will argue that presenting and discussing weather and climate information in an educational forum is a method that will help to survey and assess climate risk in order to reduce uncertainty and improve farm business management.

The impacts of climate change for insurable climate risks (MLA): Producers can buy insurance products to help protect themselves against loss or damage caused by low-frequency, high-consequence events such as hail, flood, frost and fire. Premiums are determined by the sum insured, the type and value of the crop, location, regional loss history, individual claim history, and the type of excess.

Climate risk management tools for agriculture (Managing Climate): We support research into decision-support applications and products. Investing in tools such as the CliMate app gives farmers information in formats which are more convenient and accessible, to support their climate risk management decisions on-farm.

Climate Kelpie: Climate Kelpie is for Australian farmers and their advisors. It connects you to tools and information about climate to help you make decisions about your farm business.

CliMate: CliMate is a suite of climate analysis tools delivered on the Web, iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch devices. CliMate allows you to interrogate climate records to ask questions relating to rainfall, temperature, radiation, and derived variables such as heat sums, soil water and soil nitrate, and well as El Nino Southern Oscillation status. 

Climate Risk Management: Making decisions and dealing with imperfect information (Cotton Info): Evaluating and interpreting layers of climate information, weather acronyms and colour charts at key decision making times can be a daunting prospect. Some growers have their favourite weather sites on which theybase their decisions, while others prefer to watch for a flock of black cockatoos on the wing or a cactus flowering to see if rain is coming. Others only believe forecast rain when the gutters are running water. Those that have been burnt by a forecast in the planning stage have an inherent distrust in weather predictive systems.

Decisions Made by Farmers that Relate to Climate Change (RIRDC): The report reveals that a majority of farmers are struggling financially in the short term in the face of a myriad of challenges which go beyond longer term trends in climate. Adaptive responses to climate change will present challenges to individual farmers and has the potential to lead to social change in some parts of rural Australia through changing farming practices, income levels and employment opportunities

Preparing your farm for drought (Agriculture Victoria): The department has developed a number of information tools to assist in business management and farm planning. The increased likelihood of drought is also calling for improved skills and capabilities in how farmers manage business risk and plan for the longer term.

Drought - facing the challenge and managing the risk (NRM South and NRM North): So what lessons can we take from our new hard won experience? Foremost is the fact that drought is inevitable, so we must prepare ourselves to reduce the risks as much as possible. That is where this drought module can provide the basis of a new plan.

Drought preparedness, drought contingency planning and farm risk management (USQ): Drought planning and water crisis management needs to be proactive. This is largely because overall policy, legislation, and specific mitigation strategies should be in place before a drought or water crisis affects the use of the country’s water resources.

Viability of Weather Index Insurance in Managing Drought Risk in Australia (Actuaries Institute): In this paper, we look into the risk management strategies adopted by farmers to manage revenue shortfall resulting from drought-induced yield losses. We survey literature on traditional indemnity–based insurance and weather index insurance.